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In the Year of our LORD Jesus Christ
2019
-- As of January 20, 2017
A Sigh Of Relief With The Inauguration Of Donald John Trump as President of the United States of America, And Hope For A Prosperous Future For All United States Citizens (we who are a nation called "the melting pot of the world"). We shall be great and exceptionally great again.

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Peace and Liberty. Semper Fidelis.










Friday, November 27, 2009

Carbon-14 dating applied to some ancient Biblical Chronology

On Aug 07, 2008...Bryant G. Wood PhD reported the following data on Jericho's Carbon 14 dating that supports my thesis in dating Jericho's destruction to 1511 B.C. to being more within the margin of error than those who date to the 1400s B.C. and later:
http://www.biblearchaeology.org/post/2008/08/Carbon-14-Dating-at-Jericho.aspx

Initially, a C14 date of 1410 +/- 40 B.C. (done by the British Museum) was published for charcoal from the destruction level of Jericho (Jericho V [1983], p. 763).

This was later found to be in error and corrected from 3080 +/- 40 BP to 3300 +/- 110 BP (Radiocarbon 32 [1990]: 74; BP = before present), which calibrates to 1590 or 1527 +/- 110 B.C., depending on how one reads the calibration curve (Radiocarbon 35 [1993]: 30).

Additional tests were done on six grain samples from the destruction level resulting in dates between 1640 and 1520 B.C. and 12 charcoal samples from the destruction level resulting in dates between 1690 and 1610 B.C. (Radiocarbon 37 [1995]: 217).


This Carbon-14 dating reported in 1995 is thought to be more reliable than the previous data.

One of the things that is seemingly left out in the Carbon-14 debates is contamination, and cross-sourcing.

For example, there is data that shows that when a modern animal is fed old and rotten vegetation, the animal can soon carbon-14 date to whatever you would misdate the rotten food to, because the rate of decay throws off the effectiveness of Carbon-14's accuracy. So in that respect, decomposition (its rate and state of) needs to be factored in in carbon-14 dating.

In contrast, the Jericho data suggests a suspension of decomp in the grain and charcoal samples. The difference in the charcoal dates to the 1600s B.C., may relate to the age of the wood or tree when it was cut (some may argue). Even if this were true, we again are looking closer to a 1511 B.C. destruction than any other proposed date for the fall of Jericho under Israel's entry into the Land.

SCIENCE, back in 1983 with Keith and Anderson's 'Radiocarbon dating: Fictitious results with Mollusk Shells' (August 16, vol. 141, No. 3581, pp. 634-636) showed that Mollusks could generate fictitious results of Carbon-14 dating by up to 3000 years, depending on what muddy river bottom they were feeding off of. And if river mud can alter mollusk Carbon-14 dating...in what other living creatures or once living organisms could they affect? Could deer or other animal antler growth, for example, reflect this in C-14 data? Strangely enough, this very example done in 1957 is often used in debates between young and old earth advocates, even though 3 stages of the same antler growth reflects a difference of some 5,000 years in C-14.

Hence, 5,000 years and more can be fictitiously attributed to C-14 dating. Thus, we can virtually bring the Holocene era into the Bronze Ages in one stroke via one example of a past Yale University testing on the subject. And even though advances have been made in Carbon-14 analysis; if the data going into the program is flawed...the resulting data that comes out will simply reflect that same flaw. Unfortunately, most and nearly all "scientists" simply take the C-14 results of others at face value and hypothesize by faith rather than "science", never testing and analyzing the sample and data themselves to see if the same result will happen again and again (which is what a scientist is "supposed" to do).

In regard to site dating found in material, using Carbon 14, we should always ask...Where would the best organic matter for use in dating that is the oldest but the freshest cut and least contaminated be found, and did we find it?

Even so, for me, it is yet a happy event for the above Jericho dating to be along the lines of placing 1511 B.C. within the oft cited C-14 150 year margin of error. Some of the sceptics may yet be finally be coming around.


Fixing our C-14 and ceramic Chronology
As I have pointed out, C-14 chronology is seriously flawed. What is equally flawed, is the new notion that we can now create data into existence by cross-quotations, so as to date ceramic development some 4,000 years ago into 25 year increments. This is utterly preposterous and ridiculous.

Unless a specific artist is identified and isolated, as some ante-Nicene fathers do of the much later Greek deity statues (and on occasion included the rich men who posed and paid for such likenesses), the notion we can consistently date ceramics to 25 year increments of development is as the ash heap at the end of a lit cigarette in reliability.

If the old Chronology of more than 10 years ago can be altered, so can the new chronology of the last 10 years. The new proposal is that all archaeology dated as 2350 B.C. be redated as 1980 B.C., and the insanely accepted notion of several hundred years of nomadism and city abandonment be discarded for a zero year, and perhaps for as many as 3 - 6 months.

What would cause an abandonment? How about geological and geo-climatic changes? That is, great natural disasters of violence.

One such disaster is that which cause the cessation of the Akkadians, and destroyed the forests of the like time period that ascended up from the Persian Gulf throughout southern Iraq, etc.

DOI: 10.1130/0091-7613(2000)28<379:CCATCO>2.0.CO;2 © 2000 GeGeology; April 2000; v. 28; no. 4; p. 379-382;ological Society of America
H. M. Cullen1, P. B. deMenocal1, S. Hemming1, G. Hemming1, F. H. Brown2, T. Guilderson3 and F. Sirocko4
1 Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964, USA
2 University of Utah, Park City, Utah 84112, USA
3 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551, USA
4 Institut für Geowissenschaften, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, 55099 Mainz, Germany

Abstract:
The Akkadian empire ruled Mesopotamia from the headwaters of the Tigris-Euphrates Rivers to the Persian Gulf during the late third millennium B.C. Archeological evidence has shown that this highly developed civilization collapsed abruptly near 4170 ± 150 calendar yr B.P., perhaps related to a shift to more arid conditions. Detailed paleoclimate records to test this assertion from Mesopotamia are rare, but changes in regional aridity are preserved in adjacent ocean basins. We document Holocene changes in regional aridity using mineralogic and geochemical analyses of a marine sediment core from the Gulf of Oman, which is directly downwind of Mesopotamian dust source areas and archeological sites. Our results document a very abrupt increase in eolian dust and Mesopotamian aridity, accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon dated to 4025 ± 125 calendar yr B.P., which persisted for 300 yr. Radiogenic (Nd and Sr) isotope analyses confirm that the observed increase in mineral dust was derived from Mesopotamian source areas. Geochemical correlation of volcanic ash shards between the archeological site and marine sediment record establishes a direct temporal link between Mesopotamian aridification and social collapse, implicating a sudden shift to more arid conditions as a key factor contributing to the collapse of the Akkadian empire.


If the demise of the Akkadians with "volcanic ash shards" occur simultaneously with the destruction of Sodom, what then?

At about the same dating, we find the geo-climatic changes were not just region wide, but world wide.

The Holocene, Vol. 15, No. 3, 321-328 (2005)

DOI: 10.1191/0959683605hl825ft © 2005 SAGE Publications
A severe centennial-scale drought in midcontinental North America 4200 years ago and apparent global linkages
Robert K. Booth
Center for Climatic Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706, USA; rkbooth@wisc.edu
Stephen T. Jackson
Department of Botany, University of Wyoming, Laramie WY 82071, USA
Steven L. Forman
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago IL 60607, USA
John E. Kutzbach
Center for Climatic Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706, USA
E. A. Bettis, III
Department of Geoscience, University of Iowa, Iowa City IA 52242, USA
Joseph Kreigs
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Upper Iowa University, Fayette IA, USA
David K. Wright
Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago IL 60607-7059, USA

Abstract:
We present evidence from a variety of physical and biological proxies for a severe drought that affected the mid-continent of North America between 4.1 and 4.3 ka. Rapid climate changes associated with the event had large and widespread ecological effects, including dune reactivation, forest fires and long-term changes in forest composition, highlighting a clear ecological vulnerability to similar future changes. Drought is also documented in the Middle East and portions of Africa and Asia, where it was similar in timing, duration and magnitude to that recorded in the central North American records. Some regions at high latitudes, including northern Europe and Siberia, experienced cooler and/or wetter conditions. Widespread mid-latitude and subtropical drought, associated with increased moisture at some high latitudes, has been linked in the instrumental record to an unusually steep sea surface temperature (SST) gradient between the tropical eastern and western Pacific Ocean (La Ninia) and increased warmth in other equatorial oceans. Similar SST patterns may have occurred at 4.2 ka, possibly associated with external forcing or amplification of these spatial modes by variations in solar irradiance or volcanism. However, changes in SST distribution bracketing the 4.2 ka event are poorly known in most regions and data are insufficient to estimate magnitude of changes in solar and volcanic forcing at this time. Further research is needed to delineate geographical patterns of moisture changes, ecological responses, possible forcing mechanisms and climatology of this severe climatic event.


And since glacial core sample dating uses Carbon 14 well outside the range of its full-life, and there is a history that supports an "artic" Britain and central and western Europe until the 500s B.C. -- then we may have to also redate the Holocene events that include land separation and spreading, and lifting (as was done with Scotland) to be theoretically redatable to a 500 year age from Abraham to Joshua, instead of 13,000 to 5,000 years ago.

The Holocene, Vol. 10, No. 4, 489-501 (2000)
DOI: 10.1191/095968300676735907
© 2000 SAGE Publications
"Patterns of isostatic land uplift during the Holocene: evidence from mainland Scotland"
David E. Smith
Centre for Quaternary Science, School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK
Robin A. Cullingford
Department of Geography, Exeter University, Amory Building, Rennes Drive, Exeter EX4 4RJ, UK
Callum R. Firth
Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH, UK)

Abstract:
Preliminary results of a lengthy and detailed investigation into middle- and late-Holocene raised shorelines in mainland Scotland indicate that three shorelines are sufficiently widely distributed to permit an examination of their extent and of the patterns of uplift which they indicate. The shorelines are the Storegga Tsunami Shoreline, reached at c. 7100 14C years BP, at the culmination of the Main Postglacial Transgression; and the Blairdrummond Shoreline, reached after the Main Postglacial Shoreline, at c. 2000–4200 14C years BP, at the time of a tsunami believed to have been caused by the Second Storegga submarine slide; the Main Postglacial Shoreline, reached at c. 5800–6850 14C years BP. The Main Postglacial Shoreline, previously believed to be the highest Holocene raised shoreline in Scotland, is now believed to be overlapped around the periphery of the uplifted area by the later Blairdrummond Shoreline. Isobase models, based upon quadratic trend surface analysis of available comparable height data consisting of altitudes on former estuarine surfaces and related to the local High Water Mark of Ordinary Spring Tides, depict the pattern of uplift for each shoreline. These models are probably more accurate than previous models of land uplift for the period studied, and indicate a consistent and unchanging uplift pattern during the middle and late Holocene.


In other words, a crustal shift of the Earth pushing west, consistent with the Dead Sea Rift in or about 1980 B.C., the approximate time of Sodom's destruction -- to about 1551 B.C., the time in which the Exodus of Israel occurred.

If we remove these Holocene Geo-realities into a new time-frame, based on a 6,000 year earth, as zircon analysis of Helium according to natural (not unnatural) science shows the Earth to approximately be...as I have posted the link to previously...then, the demise of the Akkadians and of Sodom, and miraculous events such as the sun standing in the sky for Joshua without setting...enters into the realm of geologic theory and scientific sensibility, instead of being simply a literary fantasy - myth of the ancients, or even modern proponents of such a possibile scenario.

In some areas crustal shift of the Holocene in the new time-frame, could reasonably be seen to have quickly created valleys, like the Dead Sea rift, or created mountains or hills, or formed islands from masses separated from their prior mainland states in days, and months, and years..rather than epochs, contrary to what we know Creation / Nature to be in its own violence.

The word has been at NASA through satellite surveillance technology data of the last 30 years, that volcanism will indeed shape both surface plains and valleys on other planets; and the electro-magnetic forces are also a factor in these events, as I have previously touched upon with -- currently or allegedly dated to -- Holocene Levant, Scottish, and North American examples.



The G-D Factor: Miracles manifest in Creation must always be considered Possible

http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-iarticle_query?1990ApJ...354L..37M&data_type=PDF_HIGH&whole_paper=YES&type=PRINTER&filetype=.pdf

The above pdf. tells us about the 1990 Cosmic Background Explorer Satelitte, C.O.B.E., and the background radiation of the entire sphere of the northern heavens -- as seen from the North Galactic Pole -- which showed an average temperature of 2.735 degrees centigrade above Absolute Zero.

The spectrum curve was less that 1% across the entire range of observed frequencies. That is, the universe was like some giant Cosmic radiator. There was no pond rippling big bang. The echoes of history tell us that the Universe was created in a "poof" / "everywhere all at once" and in an even distribution fashion... exactly like the ancient Bible Scriptures which tell us that G-D stretched the Heavens like a curtain, and it was there.

The COBE used the milky way galaxy as a mean center for its Daily Microwave Radiometer (DMR) readings. DMRs are those wavelengths which are able to be filtered out from our own galaxy's emissions. There are 3 known DMRs, and the COBE used all 3.

In 1993, the Jet Propulsion Labaratory (courtesy of NASA) revealed a 365 day condensed DMR picture of the North Galactic Pole Sphere, and this is where the "radiator" picture comes in. It was at this meeting that the American Astronomical Society officially said the fluctuation was not as high as 1%, but only .03% or three-one hundredths of one percent. They also settled on a final number of 2.726 Centigrade above Absolute Zero (over its previous 2.735).

So if the Universe scientifically testifies that it was simultaneously created everywhere at once by G-D in a macro-cosmic action; we cannot discount the rapid shifts of islands breaking off from continents, the creating or traveling of mountains many miles as if on rollers virtually overnight, or of G-D the Father sending us His Son to preach to us the message of eternal spiritual redemption. These things we simply cannot honestly discount either scientifically or logically.

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