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Thank you for coming.
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In the Year of our LORD Jesus Christ
2017
-- As of January 20, 2017
A Sigh Of Relief With The Inauguration Of Donald John Trump as President of the United States of America, And Hope For A Prosperous Future For All United States Citizens (we who are a nation called "the melting pot of the world"). We shall be great and exceptionally great again.


Peace and Liberty. Semper Fidelis.









Saturday, July 28, 2012

The UN Small Arms Treaty - Why Every Gun Owner In America Should Vote Obama Out of Office


On July 26, 2012  The Hill
reported that the United States Congress will again forego passing a required budget, and will likely pass a continuing resolution that will see that the Federal Government has funding for 6 more months.   This pattern and method of operation of passing continuing resolutions ensures a trillion dollar plus deficit annually, and is a ruse to ensure a lack of specific budgetary accountability for Federal mis-spending. 

On Friday July 27, 2012, the delegation for the United States withdrew from the United Nations Small Arms Treaty citing concerns about the language of the document which would affect export sales to ally nations it may wish to sell arms to. 

 Foxnews stated that: 
The United States objected to any requirement to report on exports of ammunition and that remains out of the latest draft.
Daryl Kimball, executive director of the Arms Control Association, said that …the treaty would prevent arms sales to allies like Israel and Taiwan.

 The United States asked for 6 months, until after the 2012 election results, in order to sign and implement this treaty.





There was NO MENTION of the abominations of language that are contrary to the United States Constitution that its signing would require, nor of the new financial burden placed upon the United States to be the primary nation funding and redistributing in excess of 200 Billion dollars annually and up for an indefinite period.   In other words, the signing of this Treaty will automatically obligate the United States to redistribute its wealth in every national budget forever to the tune of 200 Billion U.S. dollars and more, to be handed out to between 90 to 140 of the 152 member nations expecting the United States to be the source for the UN Small Arms Treaty as its primary funding.

  At least, that was the primary motivation behind a 90 member protest letter that followed a United States withdrawal. Nor was there mention or concern that language of the Treaty necessitates the establishment of an Oligarchic Foreign Dictatorship body over the governing bodies of the United States Congress – Executive Branch – Supreme Court.  The Treaty has specific language that establishes a foreign dictatorial oligarchy upon itself and authenticating and recognizing a New World Order Governance of unknown persons (probably based out of Brussels, Belgium).

 In effect, the Treaty lays claims that nullifies and renders the United States Constitution void, because if we sign it and recognize it and enforce it when we are informed in Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803) @180 we are to make laws in conformity to our Constitution.  By accepting the UN Small Arms Treaty, we would be saying that we would rather be enslaved / intolerably constrained – shackled – ruled by Foreign Powers and their expectancy that once in, for the United States there would be NO WAY OUT, because if we should withdraw, it would defeat the Treaty…and under Article 18 of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the signing of Treaties that ist verboten!

The Vienna Convention that the United States signed on May 22, 1969 states:


Article 18
Obligation not to defeat the object and purpose of a treaty prior to its entry into force
A State is obliged to refrain from acts which would defeat the object and purpose of a treaty when:
(a) it has signed the treaty or has exchanged instruments constituting the treaty subject to ratification, acceptance or approval, until it shall have made its intention clear not to become a party to the treaty; or
(b) it has expressed its consent to be bound by the treaty, pending the entry into force of the treaty and provided that such entry into force is not unduly delayed.




In June of 2011, Forbes.com warned 13 months before this United Nations Conference that the language even then was so alarming, it was actually a provocation.
What, exactly, does the intended agreement entail?
While the terms have yet to be made public, if passed by the U.N. and ratified by our Senate, it will almost certainly force the U.S. to:
1.       Enact tougher licensing requirements, creating additional bureaucratic red tape for legal firearms ownership.
2.       Confiscate and destroy all “unauthorized” civilian firearms (exempting those owned by our government of course).
3.       Ban the trade, sale and private ownership of all semi-automatic weapons (any that have magazines even though they still operate in the same one trigger pull – one single “bang” manner as revolvers, a simple fact the ant-gun media never seem to grasp).
4.       Create an international gun registry, clearly setting the stage for full-scale gun confiscation.
5.       In short, overriding our national sovereignty, and in the process, providing license for the federal government to assert preemptive powers over state regulatory powers guaranteed by the Tenth Amendment in addition to our Second Amendment rights.
Have no doubt that this plan is very real, with strong Obama administration support. In January 2010 the U.S. joined 152 other countries in endorsing a U.N. Arms Treaty Resolution that will establish a 2012 conference to draft a blueprint for enactment. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton has pledged to push for Senate ratification.

Thankfully, the Gun Lobby spearheaded by the National Rifle Association has stood up at America’s time of need and rallied the United States Senate along with Senator Moran to oppose any signing of the UN Small Arms Treaty by the Obama Administration in 2012.

Senator Moran of Kansas released a copy of the letter he and 50 other U.S. Senators signed and sent to Barack Obama, letting him know that in election year 2012, any signing of such a Treaty as he intended is politically inexpedient.


Jul 26 2012

Sen. Moran and 50 Senators: Second Amendment Rights are not Negotiable

WASHINGTON, D.C. – U.S. Senator Jerry Moran (R-KS) today led 50 senators in expressing grave concern about the dangers posed to Americans’ Second Amendment rights by the United Nations’ Arms Trade Treaty. The 51 senators notified President Obama and Secretary of State Clinton of their intent to oppose ratification of an Arms Trade Treaty that in any way restricts the rights of law-abiding American gun owners. The opposition is strong enough to block the treaty from Senate passage, as treaties submitted to the U.S. Senate require approval of two-thirds of Senators present to be ratified.

In the letter, the senators wrote: “As the treaty process continues, we strongly encourage your administration not only to uphold our country’s constitutional protections of civilian firearms ownership, but to ensure – if necessary, by breaking consensus at the July conference – that the treaty will explicitly recognize the legitimacy of lawful activities associated with firearms, including but not limited to the right of self-defense. As members of the United States Senate, we will oppose the ratification of any Arms Trade Treaty that falls short of this standard.”

“Our country’s sovereignty and the rights of American citizens must not be infringed upon by the United Nations,” Sen. Moran said. “Today, the Senate sends a powerful message to the Obama Administration: an Arms Trade Treaty that does not protect ownership of civilian firearms will fail in the Senate. Our firearm freedoms are not negotiable.”

“The NRA, our four million members and the tens of millions of law-abiding Americans who own firearms will never surrender our right to keep and bear arms to the United Nations,” said Chris Cox, executive director of NRA’s Institute for Legislative Action. “That is why the United Nations Arms Trade Treaty has been met with the full opposition of the NRA. We are grateful for the efforts of these senators, led by Senator Jerry Moran, to oppose this encroachment of international tyranny.”

The U.N. conference on the Arms Trade Treaty is taking place this week in New York City. In October of 2009 at the U.N. General Assembly, the Obama Administration reversed the positions of the two previous Administrations and voted for the U.S. to participate in negotiating the Arms Trade Treaty, purportedly to establish “common international standards for the import, export, and transfer of conventional arms.” However, by threatening to include civilian firearms within its scope, the Arms Trade Treaty could restrict the lawful private ownership of firearms in the United States.

The letter was signed by U.S. Senators Lamar Alexander (R-TN), Kelly Ayotte (R-NH), Max Baucus (D-MT), John Barrasso (R-WY), Mark Begich (D-AK), Roy Blunt (R-MO), John Boozman (R-AR), Richard Burr (R-NC), Bob Casey (D-PA), Dan Coats (R-IN), Tom Coburn (R-OK), Thad Cochran (R-MS), Susan Collins (R-ME), Bob Corker (R-TN), John Cornyn (R-TX), Saxby Chambliss (R-GA), Mike Crapo (R-ID), Jim DeMint (R-SC), Mike Enzi (R-WY), Lindsey Graham (R-SC), Chuck Grassley (R-IA), Orrin Hatch (R-UT), Dean Heller (R-NV), John Hoeven (R-ND), Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-TX), James Inhofe (R-OK), Johnny Isakson (R-GA), Mike Johanns (R-NE), Ron Johnson (R-WI), Jon Kyl (R-AZ), Mike Lee (R-UT), Joe Manchin (D-WV), Mitch McConnell (R-KY), Jerry Moran (R-KS), Lisa Murkowski (R-AK), Ben Nelson (D-NE), Rand Paul (R-KY), Rob Portman (R-OH), Mark Pryor (D-AR), Jim Risch (R-ID), Pat Roberts (R-KS), Marco Rubio (R-FL), Jeff Sessions (R-AL), Richard Shelby (R-AL), Olympia Snowe (R-ME), Jon Tester (D-MT), John Thune (R-SD), Pat Toomey (R-PA), David Vitter (R-LA), Jim Webb (D-VA), and Roger Wicker (R-MS).



The International Association for the Protection of Civilian Arms Rights comprised of Gun Rights groups in Argentina, Australia, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, Philippines, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan, and the USA
placed a copy of the UN Treaty on-line in their site, in case it is taken down from the Internet elsewhere later.




Article 6
Export
 1.    Each exporting State Party shall conduct national assessments…
 3.    If, after an authorization has been granted, a State Party becomes aware of new relevant information that causes it to reassess that there is an overriding risk of any of the consequences of paragraphs 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 of article 4, the State Party may suspend or revoke the authorization.
 4.    Each State Party shall establish and maintain a national control system to regulate the export of ammunition for conventional arms under the scope of this Treaty, and shall apply article 3, and paragraphs 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 of article 4 prior to authorizing any export of ammunition.
 5.    Each State Party shall establish and maintain a national control system to regulate the export of parts and components, to the extent necessary, for the conventional arms under the scope of this Treaty, and apply article 3 and paragraphs 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 of article 4 prior to authorizing any export of those parts and components.


The only way to fully regulate and control ammunition sales is to take the Industry over.  Obama has absolutely no qualms on walking in and taking over whole Corporations such as General Motors and dictating what they can or cannot build, so why should he be hindered in taking over Winchester, Remington, Federal, Speer, Cor-Bon, or a slew of other ammunition manufacturing companies and then running them out of business the same way he had handpicked profitable Car Dealerships for Chrysler and GM to shut down or else in 2009?   America should NOT forgive Obama for that kind of totalitarian interference nor forget it in November 2012 when they vote. 



Article 10
Reporting and Record-Keeping
1.         Each State Party shall maintain national records, in accordance with its national laws and regulations, of the export authorizations or actual exports of the conventional arms under the scope of this Treaty and, where feasible, details of those conventional arms transferred to their territory as the final destination or that are authorized to transit or transship territory under its jurisdiction.


 In other words, even under its own territory, you must be AUTHORIZED by the Government or some Government Agency to transit a firearm to and from a gun range, to and from hunting grounds, from one residence of where you live to another residence.  This requires NEW Federal regulations that will restrict guns to be isolated to place of residence for later easier confiscation of all firearms.  The language that was supposed to affect EXPORTS was written in such a way to have a greater DOMESTIC impact than that of any Export paperwork trail its deceitful advocates claim was the intent.  The wording: ‘details of those conventional arms … that are authorized to transit or transship territory under its jurisdiction” leave NO DOUBT as to the intent and teeth of the enforcement is to rule all gun civilian (non-federal law enforcement) gun ownership as all potentially illegal owners, perhaps starting first with forced registrations in sub-section 2.

2.    Such records may contain, inter alia, quantity, value, model/type, authorized international transfers of conventional arms under the scope of this Treaty, conventional arms actually transferred, details of exporting State(s), importing State(s), transit and transshipment State(s) and end users, as appropriate. Records shall be kept for a minimum of ten years, or longer if required by other international obligations applicable to the State Party.





You will notice that there is the parenthetical pluralizing which legally requires the term of States to be rendered as an either / or in “State(s)”, such as dealing with internal and domestic transfers, transits by land or air, or transshipping which is transfer by means of river or lake or sea or ocean by boat or ship or other relevant watercraft.  That means the specificity of the language used in this Treaty was not only well thought out, it is of evil intent upon the casual citizen of the world who dares own a legal firearm in his country (not just here in the United States). 


4.    Each State Party shall, within the first year after entry into force of this Treaty for that State Party, provide an initial report to the secretariat of relevant activities undertaken in order to implement this Treaty, including national laws, regulations and administrative measures. States Parties shall report on any new activities undertaken in order to implement this Treaty, when appropriate. Reports shall be made available and distributed to States Parties by the secretariat.

In other words, there is an EXPECTED TRANSFORMATION of existing laws – regulations – administration upon any nation that dares sign this Treaty.  The Second Amendment by necessity is required to be rendered as VOID. 

And if this Constitutional Right is stripped from us,
then quickly following will be the removal of the right of free speech, freedom of religion,

As well as the right of  freedom of the Press,

 a right to trial by a jury of our peers (such as was denied Jesse Ventura when he sued the TSA over being groped when he went to fly a commercial airline and sued for his day in Court and was denied a jury

), and all our other rights you can just forget about by an Obama Administration that is already effectually creating precedent to strip you of these rights.

Obama’s Administration regularly persecutes Christians while promoting Islam as the new Federal or State Religion, and has threatened that any criticism of such is not a right of free speech, even though Muslims are fully free to denigrate and threaten all sorts of violence upon Christianity and Judaism and its adherents without consequence whatsoever. As for Freedom of the Press, the news organizations have to submit their stories on Obama for clearance in order to have access later to question and answer sessions and are under threat of IRS audits and FCC license pulls and other oppressive threats if they report any challenge to Obama’s unconstitutionality (especially his origins and lack of citizenship vetting).  In fact, reporters are expected to interject hostile questions at any Press Conference they attend rather than to report the news, to simply interject opinions that are pro-Obama as if being news journalists, that’s what news journalists now do.    


For example,




ARTICLE 12

ENFORCEMENT

Each State Party shall adopt national legislation or other appropriate national measures regulations and policies as may be necessary to implement the obligations of this Treaty.


ARTICLE 13

IMPLEMENTATION SUPPORT UNIT

This Treaty hereby establishes an Implementation Support Unit to assist States Parties in its implementation.
The ISU shall consist of adequate staff, with necessary expertise to ensure the mandate entrusted to it can be effectively undertaken, with the core costs funded by States Parties.
The implementation Support Unit, within a minimized structure and responsible to States Parties, shall undertake the responsibilities assigned to it in this Treaty, inter alia:
Receive distribute reports, on behalf of the Depository, and make them publicly available;
Maintain and Distribute regularly to States Parties the up-to-date list of national contact points;
Facilitate the matching of offers and requests of assistance for Treaty implementation and promote international cooperation as requested;
Facilitate the work of the Conference of States Parties, including making arrangements and providing the necessary services for meetings under this Treaty; and
Perform other duties as mandated by the Conference of States Parties.





 Article 15
International Assistance

In fulfilling the obligation of this Treaty, States Parties may seek, inter alia, legal assistance, legislative assistance, technical assistance, institutional capacity building, material assistance or financial assistance. States, in a position to do so, shall provide such assistance. …

Article 18

Withdrawal and Duration

This Treaty shall be of unlimited duration.
Each State Party shall, in exercising its national sovereignty, have the right to withdraw from this Convention. It shall give notice of such withdrawal to all other States Parties from this Convention.  It shall give notice of such withdrawal to all other States Parties and to the Depositary.  The instrument of withdrawal shall include a full explanation of the reasons motivating this withdrawal.
A state shall not be discharged, by reason of its withdrawal, from the obligations arising from this treaty while it was a party to the Treaty, including any financial obligations, which may have accrued.



The above contains the authorization for the creation of a United Nations Military Enforcement Unit that will be a cross between a Gang SWAT Unit and a Special Forces Tactical Assault Unit.  The United States will foot the bill to fund this new military and it will do smash and grab of guns from U.S. Citizens with the help of  localized Federal Law Enforcement perhaps in the hundreds at a time as if they were war game exercises.  These Implementation Support Units will be authorized to fully annihilate all opposition, take out homes and residences and their neighbors, who will simply be collateral damage; before they move onto the next target.  The object is to create fear and compliance, and submission to the New State, the New World Order.  Humanity will not have any value unless it is deemed as value by the New World Order…which means at any time, life can be snuffed out in the New Order, and this is the kind of misery Obama wants the people of the United States subject to.  That kind of oppressive regime is Obama’s version of “social justice”, and being black or Hispanic will afford no protection under this new ultra-Leftist World regime based in the devaluation required them under Communist-Socialism.    



[Addendum, 7am Pacific 07/29/2012 

Prison Planet reminds us that we have already done house-to-house gun seizures during Hurricane Katrina (under the Presidency of George Bush),
and may I add and remind you, especially in seizing guns from vulnerable old ladies
who were then left prey for violent roaming looters. 
American troops were ordered to conduct door-to-door gun confiscation sweeps after Hurricane Katrina, and while it has emerged that at least one unit stood down and refused the order, many more carried out the unconstitutional mission. That precedent has been followed by other exercises training American soldiers for gun seizures, along with other martial law measures.”
And let us also NOT forget that an out of control Obama in 2013 will have a fully functioning Internet Kill Switch as part of his arsenal.  He has leaked that the United States has conducted cyber-warfare practice upon Iran, and if his zealots in the Federal Government feel they have no consequences by following orders, they (by his orders) have or are working out the kinks on  the capability to shut down the Internet in given area to not only isolate them communicating with the rest of the world, but to shut down water and electricity (essential daily utilities), erase data to anything hooked up to the Internet by a misuse of CISPA ( - the Cyber Intelligence Sharing and Protection Act) or a variant of it (if the Senate has their way) and destroy business and personal stored data, including any wealth electronically stored up in banks  etc. within a geographic area and use this threat of destroying wealth to force a voluntary compliance.
End of Addendum]


As the Treaty notes, it is of permanent duration.  We should not be persuaded that just because there exists an “escape clause” to pull out that we could or would be enabled to under whatever new restrictions and language not yet told us, not to mention the Vienna Convention’s article 18. 


Former Ambassador John Bolton’s interview confirms the kind of analysis I am giving you in this post, when he was interviewed by the National Rifle Association’s own journalist, Ginny Simone.









If you value having freedom and NOT being enslaved; if you value prosperity and peace and the right to have the choices and liberties you now have under the Constitution of our Republic of the United States, it seems to me that you have no legitimate excuse to vote or re-cast a vote for the Communist-Socialist Traitor Barack Hussein Obama, who is hell-bent on destroying all our Constitutional Liberties, and the lives of what will be that of many of your own relatives, friends, neighbors, associates…as well as mine.  Obama’s hatred knows no skin color, only the nationality of those of us under the Flag of the Stars and Stripes. 

[Addendum : July 29, 2012 9pm Pacific




 http://www.bbc.co.uk/russian/uk/2010/09/100920_khodorkovsky_observer.shtml

Russian to English Translation:  
[T]hey're apparatchiks," an unnamed source told the Guardian in the labour party. "They are ... the modern equivalent of" useful idiots "Lenin", added the incumbent.


The phrase "useful idiots" in the West is often attributed to Lenin, but experts doubt that he is the author of the term. Usually this is the name given to Western intellectuals who supported Soviet  [Workers aka. Communist]  power, not realizing that it is associated with repression, hunger and  other hardships of life in Russia. [We can apply this who push for the same here in the United States.]


http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/documentaries/2010/07/100624_doc_useful_idiots_lenin.shtml



The phrase 'useful idiots', supposedly Lenin’s, refers to Westerners duped into saying good things about bad regimes.


In political jargon it was used to describe  Soviet sympathisers in Western countries and the attitude of the Soviet  government towards them.
Useful idiots, in a broader sense, refers to  Western journalists, travellers and intellectuals who gave their  blessing – often with evangelistic fervour – to tyrannies and tyrants,  thereby convincing politicians and public that utopias rather than [extermination / death camps] thrived.


Host to George Soros: Are you one of Lenin's useful idiots? ...
George Soros: Well, I suppose so.  I am a traitor too,  myself."

 


   End of Addendum]





Do you really want the Bill of Rights to be stripped away forever by Obama?  No?  Then DON’T VOTE FOR THAT TRAITOR, AND BE SURE TO VOTE FOR HIS REPUBLICAN OPPONENT!!!!

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The United States Bill of Rights

Amendment I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment II

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Amendment III

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Amendment IV

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Amendment V

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Amendment VI

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

Amendment VII

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Amendment VIII

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Amendment IX

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Amendment X

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

           
The Constitution: Amendments 11-27

Constitutional Amendments 1-10 make up what is known as The Bill of Rights.
Amendments 11-27 are listed below.

AMENDMENT XI
Passed by Congress March 4, 1794. Ratified February 7, 1795.

Note: Article III, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by amendment 11.

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.


AMENDMENT XII
Passed by Congress December 9, 1803. Ratified June 15, 1804.

Note: A portion of Article II, section 1 of the Constitution was superseded by the 12th amendment.

The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; -- the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; -- The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. [And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. --]* The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

*Superseded by section 3 of the 20th amendment.


AMENDMENT XIII
Passed by Congress January 31, 1865. Ratified December 6, 1865.

Note: A portion of Article IV, section 2, of the Constitution was superseded by the 13th amendment.

Section 1.
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


AMENDMENT XIV
Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868.

Note: Article I, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of the 14th amendment.

Section 1.
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2.
Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age,* and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Section 3.
No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

Section 4.
The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Section 5.
The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

*Changed by section 1 of the 26th amendment.


AMENDMENT XV
Passed by Congress February 26, 1869. Ratified February 3, 1870.

Section 1.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude--

Section 2.
The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


AMENDMENT XVI
Passed by Congress July 2, 1909. Ratified February 3, 1913.

Note: Article I, section 9, of the Constitution was modified by amendment 16.

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.


AMENDMENT XVII
Passed by Congress May 13, 1912. Ratified April 8, 1913.

Note: Article I, section 3, of the Constitution was modified by the 17th amendment.

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.


AMENDMENT XVIII
Passed by Congress December 18, 1917. Ratified January 16, 1919. Repealed by amendment 21.

Section 1.
After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

Section 2.
The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

Section 3.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.


AMENDMENT XIX
Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, 1920.

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


AMENDMENT XX
Passed by Congress March 2, 1932. Ratified January 23, 1933.

Note: Article I, section 4, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of this amendment. In addition, a portion of the 12th amendment was superseded by section 3.

Section 1.
The terms of the President and the Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

Section 2.
The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Section 3.
If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.

Section 4.
The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

Section 5.
Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

Section 6.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.


AMENDMENT XXI
Passed by Congress February 20, 1933. Ratified December 5, 1933.

Section 1.
The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

Section 2.
The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or Possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

Section 3.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.


AMENDMENT XXII
Passed by Congress March 21, 1947. Ratified February 27, 1951.

Section 1.
No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

Section 2.
This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.


AMENDMENT XXIII
Passed by Congress June 16, 1960. Ratified March 29, 1961.

Section 1.
The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as Congress may direct:

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

Section 2.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


AMENDMENT XXIV
Passed by Congress August 27, 1962. Ratified January 23, 1964.

Section 1.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay poll tax or other tax.

Section 2.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


AMENDMENT XXV
Passed by Congress July 6, 1965. Ratified February 10, 1967.

Note: Article II, section 1, of the Constitution was affected by the 25th amendment.

Section 1.
In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Section 2.
Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Section 3.
Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Section 4.
Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.


AMENDMENT XXVI
Passed by Congress March 23, 1971. Ratified July 1, 1971.

Note: Amendment 14, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 1 of the 26th amendment.

Section 1.
The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

Section 2.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.


AMENDMENT XXVII
Originally proposed Sept. 25, 1789. Ratified May 7, 1992.

No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of representatives shall have intervened.