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In the Year of our LORD Jesus Christ
2017
-- As of January 20, 2017
A Sigh Of Relief With The Inauguration Of Donald John Trump as President of the United States of America, And Hope For A Prosperous Future For All United States Citizens (we who are a nation called "the melting pot of the world"). We shall be great and exceptionally great again.


Peace and Liberty. Semper Fidelis.









Sunday, July 22, 2012

Luke Chapter 2:1-24 in AWPR and KJV Translations

Alternate Word Pictures with Reiterations (AWPR) will appear in yellow below the King James Version (KJV), and my comments in green.


Luke 2
King James Version (KJV)
1 And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be taxed.  (KJV)

1)    And it came into being then in those days,
 (there) went forth out a dogma – decree – command
 from near and with the force of Caesar Augustus,
 (that) all the (ones) dwelling in permanent dwellings
 (were) to be written down – enrolled – registered in writing.
  (AWPR)


2 (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.) 
(KJV)
         2)    That was the first writing down – enrolling – registration
                 in writing that came into being.
                 Acting as ruler – governor – procurator of Syria: Kureniou/Cyrenius.
                (AWPR)

The 5th century Codex Bezae (D) moved the words of Luke 2:2 after this translation, so as to read:
 “This coming into existence writing down – enrolling – registration.  First governing (the) Syria:  Kureniou / Cyrenius.”

The First Greek version of the Codex Siniaticus has a differing word order than what we are now accustomed to in our modern Greek translations.   That word order reads:
Haute  apographo  egeneto  prote hegemoneuontos tas surias kureniou.-- Earliest Codex Siniaticus

"This writing down – enrolling - registration BEGAN TO COME INTO EXISTENCE  first  - (that is,) before  the governing of Syria by Kureniou/ Cyrenius."  (translation mine)


3 And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city.  (KJV)
    3)  And running and passing through / traveling together
         went all / everyone to be written down – enrolled – registered in writing.
         Each one into (his) own (private) individual city/protected settlement
         having ascended up – went up.   (AWPR)


4 And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:)      (KJV)
      4)  Then also Joseph from Galilee --
           out of the city - inhabited /protected settlement of Nazaerth,
          (went) into Judea, into the city - inhabited /protected settlement
          of David, which is called (by name) Bethlehem through it being
          of the House and Family of David –   (AWPR)


5 To be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child. (KJV)
        5)    To be written down - enrolled - registered in writing
                with Miriam / Mary: 
          the one recollecting, being betrothed to him (as) a betrothed / engaged
          maid –damsel – wife to be [by means of a contractual promise],
          existing as one being inswelled – heavily pregnant – heavily with child.

           (AWPR)          

6 And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered.  (KJV)
       6) Then it came into being – it happened
             in their being – existing there / in that place,
             the days (for) the bearing and bringing forth (of) her
             were fully past – completed – fulfilled.
           (AWPR)

7 And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn.  (KJV)   
 7)   And she bore and brought forth the first-born son of her,
         and she enwrapped Him in clothes as in a band about Him,
         and reclined – laid Him in the stall – pen – manger,
        for that on account of [this reason] – because (there)
        certainly not was for them a (dwelling) place (or room)
        in the Katalumati / The Inn – the place of loosening
        [of belts, sandals, burdens].
        (AWPR)

 8 And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night.  (KJV)


8) And Shepherds were in the range – grazing lands –
    fields of the province / region/ country.    The same (persons)
    remaining and living in the range – grazing lands – fields of the
    province / region/ country,
    also observing and keeping a watchful preserving guard /custody
    of the night over / upon the flock of them.
   (AWPR)


9 And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were sore afraid.  (KJV)   

9)  And behold, look and see!  An angel of the LORD
     Stood near upon and over them,
     And the glory – dazzling brightness and radiant splendor 
     of (the) LORD / of YHVeH
     shone – lightened up with brilliant light like a lamp about them;


[Acts 26:13 describes brilliance above the brightness of the sun,
 Isaiah 30:26 puts such light as 7 times the brilliance of the noon-day sun.
The text here says that brilliance lit up and focused in and around the shepherds,
not that the whole world was lit up]. 

And they feared and trembled with a great terror.
[They feared and shook nervously, greatly frightened, and were seized with a sudden instinctual fright that inclined them greatly to run away.] 
 (AWPR)
  
10 And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people.  (KJV)

    10)   But spoke to them the Angel:
                   'Do not fear and tremble / do not fear (and run away).
                    Behold, look and see;
                    for because I bring and proclaim good news to you;
                    a great and growing joy  [cf. Hebrew 'gadol']
                    which will be to all the people [of Israel] /
                    which will be to all the nations [both of the Gentiles
                    as well as Israel].'
                    (AWPR) 

11 For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord.  (KJV)

      11) Because was born - brought forth to you, today,
            a Savior, who is Christ (the) LORD,
            in the city  - protected settlement  of David.
            (AWPR)



12 And this shall be a sign unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger.  (KJV)
       12)  And this to you, 
              a sign - an event - a mark - a token of confirmation:
              you will search inquire - find / discover a babe

            [brephas - before birth and after birth, a baby; one who 
                is directly dependent upon the mother for nourishment or 
                breastfeeding for survival.  see also v. 11 "born this day" ]  

               having been enwrapped about (as) in a band of swaddling clothes,
               placed laying down - set down reclining 
               in the stall - pen / manger.
               (AWPR)

13 And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying,  (KJV)
       13)   And unexpectingly suddenly (there) came into being
               together with the Angel
               a great throng - multitude (a fullness of people all around)
               of a Heavenly Angelic Army
               praising [giving exhortations of blessing and well speaking]
               GOD, and speaking - uttering definite words - saying:
               (AWPR) 

14 Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men.  (KJV)
       14)  'Glory - Praise with thoughtful recognition and honor duly rendered
              in highest places / (the) highest
              to GOD,
              and upon Earth: 
                       Peace (with Tranquility)  - 
                       Peace of mind, body, and spirit with kindness and happiness;
              [cf. Hebrew 'Shalom']  
                       in men, pleasing favor / good will
                       in - among - before men.'
                      (AWPR)

  
15 And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known unto us.  (KJV)
   15)   And it came into being (just) as the angels
           withdrew - departed from them into the Heaven,
           and (then) - and (after that) the men, the shepherds
          said - spoke up alongside with one another,
 [suggests to us that they were at differing points of distances from one 
  another surrounding the flock/herd they were keeping, and it follows that the 
  dazzling brilliant light of the Angel of the LORD lit up the flock also]
                'Let us indeed - Let us by all means go through
                 unto Bethlehem,
                 and let us experience the seeing of this spoken word
                 having occurred,
                 the which the LORD made known - declared - revealed to us.'
                 (AWPR)

16 And they came with haste, and found Mary, and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger.  (KJV)
     16)  And they came hastily - hurrying quickly,
            and diligently sought out and found out
            both Miriam / Mary and Yosef / Joseph
            and the (newborn) baby 
            lying down - reclining in the stall - pen / manger.
           (AWPR)

17 And when they had seen it, they made known abroad the saying which was told them concerning this child.  (KJV)
      17)  Then experiencing the seeing,
              they made known and distinguished - 
              they publicly spread and made distinctly known
             around concerning - about in respect to
              the spoken word to them concerning / about / in respect to
              this child.    (AWPR)

18 And all they that heard it wondered at those things which were told them by the shepherds.  (KJV)
     18)    And all those attentatively hearing - listening 
              were struck with marvel - astonishment / wondered
              concerning - in respect to - about
              the random things spoken 
              by - through - (otherwise having occurred) without notice by
              the Shepherds up alongside with them.      (AWPR)


      [Why did the hearers marvel?  Because the hearers were Jews, and the Shepherds were of the Gentiles, who in verse 20 'epestrephan' / 'converted' to Judaism  because of this Angelic Proclamation.  Luke uses the same word for conversion in the previous chapter in Luke 1:16,17.  True Heaven sent proclamations will always uphold and proclaim Yeshua / Jesus as mankind's only means of true Peace with GOD the Father and amongst ourselves. ]

19 But Mary kept all these things, and pondered them in her heart.  (KJV)
      19) Then Miriam / Mary intensely kept and guarded all the 
             spoken words / sayings cast together / pondered and considered
             in the heart of her.   (AWPR)

20 And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, as it was told unto them.  (KJV)
     20)   And the Shepherds converted  [Greek 'epestrephan']
              glorifying - giving esteem and honor with recognition
              and singing praises to GOD upon / over all things 
              which they had (intently) listened to / (carefully) heard
              and beheld (with the eyes)
              even as - inasmuch as was spoken up alongside with them.
              (AWPR)

21 And when eight days were accomplished for the circumcising of the child, his name was called Jesus, which was so named of the angel before he was conceived in the womb.  (KJV)
     21)  And when were accomplished - completed - fulfilled 
            8 Days to circumcise the recently born / little child,
            also was called forth the name of Him, Jesus / Yeshua;
            that called  through / under the Angel
            before He was grasped and taken together / conceived
            in the womb.   (AWPR)

22 And when the days of her purification according to the law of Moses were accomplished, they brought him to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord;  (KJV)
     22)  And when were accomplished - completed - fulfilled 
            the days of the cleansing - purification of her,
            according to the Law - Statute of Moses,
            they took up - brought - carried Him 
            to Jerusalem
            to present - to place near the LORD.
            (AWPR)

23 (As it is written in the law of the Lord, Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord;)  (KJV)
     23) As according to (what) has been written - inscribed - carved
           in the Law - Statute of the LORD.
                     'Every male opening a womb shall be Holy to the LORD.
               (AWPR)


24 And to offer a sacrifice according to that which is said in the law of the Lord, A pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons.  (KJV)
      24) Also to give - bestow - present -offer a sacrificial offering
           [of obedience] according to - in respect to 
           that said - declared   in the Law - Statute of (the) LORD:
           'A yoke - a joining of two - a pair of turtledoves,
            or two young - nestling doves.' "     (AWPR)


Disclaimer:  The Alternate Word Pictures with Reiterations (AWPR) translation should be used as a Bible Study Aid only, and it is recommended that a direct literal translation or the King James Bible be used for regular and ecclesiastical purposes, and that the AWPR be used in association only as a Bible study aid so as to help the reader / user in their Bible Studying to clarify context and Scriptural Intent.     Thanks.  -- Brianroy




Commentary regarding the Census:

The full implementation of a Census only came more than two decades after the Roman Empire survived a civil war that lasted some 13 years from 44-31 B.C.  The Government was being reconstructed...the bureaucracy was being put into order...and tax adjustments were needed to balance the Imperial Government’s budget and ensure all expenditures could be covered.  When the Roman Census was first brought into being, the Romans primarily taxed though land and poll (end-destination) taxes.

The first census was at first attempted to control the over-bloated size of the post-civil war Roman Senate in circa 27 B.C. from a membership of 1000 down to 600.  However, the province of Gaul (ancient France) reacted badly by going into riot and revolts that diverted much needed energies of reorganization, and highlighted a need to perform a centralized census before a final overhaul.

In fact, the first census of 27 B.C. led into an on-going process which Augustus almost immediately instituted as a means of evolving the Roman Government in successive orders, especially between 23 and 15 B.C.   In these years, you basically had an extension of the First Census of Augustus working and reworking in stages.  Augustus was reforming and administrating the system of Government toward greater efficiency from top to bottom.   It would have gradually had the kinks worked out over a number of years.

 When Augustus was reordering the Eastern half of the Empire in 21 B.C., he did so from Samos in the Aegean, while in recuperation from a combination of not being able to be in the sun, and allergies. This may have been a reaction to a massive plague that devastated central Italy in 23 B.C. (the next came in 65, then 79 A.D.); but we don't know. Having contracted and survived the plague is a likely scenario, and there are medical arguments over whether Syphilis came at this time or a few decades later in the First Century A.D.

      The first widespread Roman Census took place in Italy, Greece, Egypt, and the Turkish provinces in or about 20 B.C.  If I am not mistaken, this was in the wake of a successful subjugation and polling of Spain and the province of Galatia in 23 B.C.  After the 20 B.C. successful implementation, the Census took root Empire wide thereafter in 14 year cycles; and based on these figures, adjustments were made to poll and land tax rates, based on the last Census figures accumulated.

A few years later, in 17-16 B.C., Augustus chose to reorder the Western half of the Empire from Tarroco, Spain.  


Therefore, by 5 B.C., Caesar was organized in what he wanted, and what parts of his map of the Roman World needed to be organized, and colored in, and how.  He did this super-administration through the super census, which actual made Rome profitable, and reduced tax rates on the Imperial level (not necessarily the provincial).

When Augustus had the Great Census of Rome in 5 B.C., the one Luke mentions, the superstar or golden boy, the whiz of administration  was "Cyrenius", who appears to have acted almost as if a co-Caesar for the purposes ONLY of the Census in the East.  Cyrenius is actually the proper Latin name by which our Census Czar or Inspector General of the Census would have been known by.  The Qui in the Greek is a transliteration of the Roman / Latin "Cy", so when we see "Quirinius" referred to, it is a name sourced in Greek writings or in reference for those who are a Greek speaking or Greek reading audience, rather than an audience speaking and communicating primarily in Roman / Latin.

Was the census an inconvenience?  You bet.  But the promise of it also, was fairer taxation and representation.  Even if  the taxation was reduced just a little bit…for a reduction of 30% to the old standard of 20%, or a THIRD of what taxes you annually pay...even in our day…there would be a rush of people to carry it out to save what money they could.  Times have changed…people haven’t really that much. 

   In 5 B.C., the time of the First Great Census of the Roman Empire, the Roman Senate under Augustus had the decree go forth when or  "hegemoneuontos tes Syrias Kyreniou"  -- while Cyrenius was in charge of the Presidency of Syria.   The expression allows for a Presidency pro-tem while the Census was being tallied. perhaps being executed from June 1, 5 B.C. until May 31, 4 B.C., when the official dates of Governance began and ended in the Territorial High Administrative Offices of the Roman Empire, especially for offices such as Procurators – Governors.  Roman Legions were also dispatched generally on this same rotation in 5 year assignments, with relieving of the previous legionnaires on June 1  at the end of the 5th year served. 


I have calculated the birth of Jesus to be on or about October 27, 5 B.C.

 The First Great Census of 5 B.C. is distinct from the writings of Luke in the Book of Acts.  Acts notes the next Census Luke notes for us, and is recorded in Acts 5:37, which happened in the next cycle.  At that second Census for the Jews of Israel, 13 years after this one in which Jesus/ Yeshua was born in, Judas the Galilean raised an insurrection and burned down the still being newly built city of Sepphoris within walking distance of Nazareth, from where Joseph took Jesus with him to work as a Carpenter (though some say stone masonry was also part of the skill set as well).  Jesus probably would have started learning his trade under Joseph’s watchful eye between the ages of 8 and 10 years old; and by 13, he was required to be self-sufficient in his trade or craft if need be, to fully do his trade without the watchful eye or training of an overseer.   That incident with Judas burning down Sepphoris and creating the Sicarii robber-bands out of Jewish Gladiators (much like the much previous Spartacus of the Italian peninsula) would have taken place in circa A.D. 6,  about a year before  Jesus went up to the Temple with Joseph and Mary and talked to and amazed the great Hillel and Shammai and the renown masters of the Torah in A.D. 5.

[This post has been edited in the Comment section last on July 22, 2012, for calculation corrections at 2:55 p.m. Pacific Time]

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