(Note: Although I originally posted this in 2009, it is so far back into the archives (though worthy of view) that I thought it would be appropriate for a Palm Sunday to First Fruits / Easter Sunday reflection. I hope you will concur. The ff. is faithfully translated from the Greek with word pictures: by Brianroy)
To the Mt.Olivet: (at night), following the Last Supper.
“And having sung a song of praise, 1
and as according to His custom, together -- Jesus, and His disciples who followed along behind 2
-- went out forth into the Mount of Olives.3
And going forth, Jesus -- and the disciples of Him -- did
cross the running-torrent winter-brook in the Kidron (Valley)."4
[Commentary: The crossing of torrential waters flowing in the Kidron informs us of two things:
1) Jesus and His disciples had to cross by a bridge which was destroyed by 70 A.D.; and
2) There was probably a heavy overcast from south of Jerusalem to northern Samaria,
if not also, a ground- saturation from rains at the time.
Even if it was raining, we are not -- nor would we be -- informed directly of this in the Bible. We can safely say that, at the very least, it probably was drizzly, with a possible early morning fog rolling in (that fog, in turn, would burn off by 7am or 8am that following morning). :End of Commentary]
"And Jesus said to them,‘All of you will be offended in Me in this night….’5
and Jesus accompanies them 6
upon a place called Gethsemane,7
where a garden was.8
Then knew also Judas (Iscariot), the (one) betraying Him, the place, because Jesus had assembled there many times (before) with His disciples."9
[Commentary: The Apostles John, Andrew, Thomas, and Nathaniel -- through the Gospel of John -- accuse Judas of following behind by stealth, at a safe distance, to see where Jesus and the disciples went. Therefore, by this means, Judas knew exactly where Christ and His disciples went, following the Last Supper. There must have been something, which more than just one of the disciples saw from their vantage point on the way across the bridge, or had seen from near the narrow path off the road into Gethsemane that night - at some very near distance away. Perhaps some of these disciples had called out to Judas, and beckoned him over, only to see him scurry away. Although John 18:2 may imply this, neither John (the dictator) -- nor Andrew (the scribe) -- enters it into the record of the Gospel of John.
Now the Greek suggests that Gethsemane visibly concealed its occupants from the road. This informs us: that at the time, there must have been very dense vegetation that was surrounding the area to which Jesus and His disciples would retreat. Therefore, in a cold camp, unlit by campfires or torches, concealed by the vegetation, discovery was impossible at night, unless one knew EXACTLY where to look for the lone restrictive path, and how to get to this hideaway.
The Greek also suggests that the Garden was down the slope of Olivet, off the road, under and through bushes and trees. Hence therefore, coming “upon the place”, Jesus would descend down to a clearing out of even normal daytime sight from the road. : End of Commentary]
"He said to them, ‘Sit down upon this [wall], until going aside, I shall express (My) concerns -- vows -- and give thanks (over) there.10
Offer humble petitions of coming alongside with prayer (of expressing your concerns -- vows -- and giving of thanks) so that you will not enter into the testing of trial and adversity.’"11
[Commentary: The Greek word for the activity of prayer in this passage is “proseuchomai”. The word “pros” (‘up to, and alongside’ /’ with’) - is enhancing and directing the usage of “euchomai”. It is not a word involving worship of prostration, but rather petitioning a form of prayer and communication. This type of communion communication appears to be the same type to which “angels” engage in with the Father, by inference. : End of Commentary]
"And He takes with Him, Peter, and the two sons of Zebedee: James and John.12
And He was withdrawn from them about a stone’s throw.13
And He began to be utterly astonished and terrified, and deeply distressed. But He speaks His mind and feelings to them, saying, ‘Deeply grieved is the soul of Me, unto death. Remain here, and keep awake and alert with Me.’14
And going forward a little (distance),15
He falls and sets on the knees,"16
[Commentary: The word picture of falling and settling the knees, suggests that Jesus is either in soft dirt or mud. This is indicative of a recent surge in the Kidron torrent, and His close proximity to it; or of very recent rainfall. The wet soft dirt of Gethsemane, unlike the Creation, is cold and chilling; where as the dirt of the Garden following the creation of the world was originally hot and wet, and beneficial (Genesis 2:6). Gethsemane’s dirt represents the cold dead state of man’s eternal soul without GOD; and the Second Adam, being Christ, is come to restore man to his first state, in a right relationship with Him. : End of Commentary.]
"His face upon the ground,17
expressing concerns -- vows -- and the offering up of thanks, in that if it were to be possible, the time might pass from Him:18
‘Father of Me, if it is able to be so, let this cup pass from Me;
but not in what manner or way as I will, but rather in what
manner or way as You.’19
And He was withdrawn from the disciples [upon the road] about a stone’s throw.20
[An hour passes]And He comes up alongside the disciples, and finds them sleeping, and he speaks His mind to Peter, saying,
‘Simon, do you sleep? Do you not have the strength and power
and ability for (even just) one hour to watch with Me?’21
Stay awake and alert, and will yourself forward, in order that
you do not enter into the testing of adversity; for indeed, the spirit
(is) eager and willing, but the flesh (is) strengthless.’22
And again, departing, He prayed the same word (He was praying before).23
[A second hour passes]And coming, again He finds them sleeping, for their eyes were weighed down and heavy,24
and they could not open the eyes to see or perceive what to answer Him.25
And once more, departing, a third time did He petition in prayer the same words (He was praying before).26
[A third hour approaches completion]And an Angel from Heaven appeared to Him, strengthening Him;27
and becoming in agony, He prayed more instantly."28
[Commentary: Notice the comment, “He prayed more instantly.” This tells us that when Jesus prayed, it was slow and methodical after this effect: He was careful in what He chose to say while praying. Further, once He prayed, He was able to ask exactly the same prayer over and over again. That prayer was not pre-fabricated as a nonsensical utterance, but was specifically tailored for the concerns and needs of the moment. We are to follow this example. This form of repetition is perfectly within our rights. We must be careful in the use of pre-fabricated prayers, when repeated thousands of times, to which the mind may wander in a sort of automatic, not focusing on the relationship with the Almighty Himself. : End of Commentary.]
"Then the sweat of Him, as it were, became as thick clots of blood falling down upon the earth.29
And rising up from the prayer of petition, coming up to and alongside the disciples of Him,30
[Peter, James, and John] a third time,31
He finds (them) sleeping from (their) grieving.32
And He said to them,
‘Why do you sleep? Stand up and express your concerns, vows, and
offer thanks, in order that you enter not into the testing of trial and
[Minimal response. The disciples are not aroused.]
‘Sleep on down (for) what (time) remains and rest,34
for it is enough!35
Look, and see! The hour draws near 36
and has come.37
Rising up, express your concerns -- vows -- and giving of thanks in prayer, in
so that it may be that you will not enter into the testing of trial and
Look and see, the Son of Man is betrayed into (the)
hands of sinners!39
Rise up! Let’s go! (For) Behold, the (one) betraying
Me approaches and draws near!’"40
[Commentary: The “look and see” / “beholds” of the Garden are prophetically linked to the three V’Hineh’s of Joseph’s dream in Genesis 37:7.
1) The binding of sheaves in the field (‘The hour draws near).
2) The crucifixion or the raising of Joseph’s sheaf (‘The Son of man is betrayed).
3) The gathering in of all the children of Israel (‘Those betraying Me approach and draw near’), being those that marvel and bend over toward the raised or crucified sheaf. :End of Commentary.]
"Judas, receiving the 400 - 600 41
and the Suborning Officers42
of the First Priests and the Pharisees, comes forth there (down into the Garden of Gethsemane) with torches and lamps and weapons.43
And immediately, while Jesus was yet still speaking (to His disciples), behold, -- Judas, one of the 12, came from before the front of the First Priests and the Elders of the People with an abundantly numerous and disconcerted crowd (armed) with swords and clubs.44
Then perceiving and knowing all the things coming upon Him, Jesus having gone forth, said to them, ‘Whom do you strive to find?’
They snapped back judgingly to Him, ‘Jesus the Nazarene!’
And Judas, he betraying Him, stood also with them. Jesus declares His mind and heart to them, saying, ‘I AM’. When He told them that, ‘I AM’, they went away while looking back, and fell to the earth [and into the mud].45
Again then, He interrogated, ‘Whom do you strive to find?’
They then said respectfully, with an intelligent answer and tone,
‘Jesus the Nazarene….’46
[Back to Mount Moriah]
Then the band [of the 400 - 600 armed Levites], and the Ruler of the Thousand, and the Suborning Officers of the Jews, together seized Jesus, and bound [and hooded] Him, and led Him away: first, up alongside with Annas: because he was Father-in-law to Caiaphas, who was high priest that year. This Caiaphas, [being the same one] having advised the Jews, that it is profitable for one man to perish in place of -- and for the sake of -- the people.47
Then the High Priest (Annas) questioned Jesus concerning His disciples, and concerning His teachings. Jesus answered him,
‘I publicly spoke to the world. I always taught in the Synagogue
and in the Temple, where Jews always came together, and I spoke
nothing in secret. Why do you question Me? Question those having
heard what I spoke to them. Look and see, these know what I
And as He was saying these things, one of the Suborning Officers -- standing by -- violently struck Jesus with the open palm, saying, ‘Thus, in such a manner, you answer the High Priest?!’
To him, Jesus answered,
‘If I have spoken evilly, bear witness concerning the evil;
but if well, why do you beat Me?’
And those seizing Jesus so led (Him) away blindfolded, and those holding Him beating Him (continually) about the face, up to and alongside Caiaphas, the High Priest48
-- where the first priests and scribes and elders were (now) assembled:49
the attendants and the under-officers remaining outside, in the Court below.50
And the First Priests and the elders and the whole* Sanhedrin sought after false testimony against Jesus, in what manner how they might execute Him. And found none, even though a great* number of false witnesses (were) coming forward, (still they) did not find, because their testimonies were not alike.
And coming up alongside [the High Priest], the false witnesses said: ‘We heard Him say, I will throw down this Temple made with hands, and through 3 days, another will I build, not made with hands.’ And: ‘This One said, I am able to destroy the Temple of GOD, and -- through 3 days -- to rebuild and establish it.’ And neither in this, was their testimony alike."51
[Commentary: The role of two agreeing witnesses was to be that of executioners who strangle the victim to death with a cord about the neck of the accused; each witness pulling on an end until the guilty one was dead of asphyxiation (Midrash, Sanhedrin 7:3). : End of Commentary.]
"And, standing up in the midst (of the false witnesses), the High Priest questioned Jesus, saying, ‘You do not answer ---nothing? What of these (who) witness against You?’52
But Jesus kept silent. And answering, the High Priest said to Him, ‘I exorcise You, and command You to oath -- by the Living GOD -- so that You may tell us that if You are the Messiah, the Son of GOD!’53
And Jesus said, ‘I AM!!!’
‘You have spoken My very thoughts and feelings on the
matter! Besides, I tell you, from this moment you will
see the Son of Man out from the Right (Hand) of the
Power, sitting, and coming upon [the Earth] with the
clouds of Heaven.’54
Then the High Priest tore his garments, saying, ‘He blasphemed! Why yet have we need of witnesses? Look and see! Now you have heard the blasphemy of Him. We have heard it from His mouth. What seems it to you?’
And they [the Sanhedrin, upon casting their votes, declared], saying, ‘He is liable of death.’55
Then some began to spit at Him and in His face, and to smother the face of Him. And the Suborning Officers struck Him with slaps from the open palm, and others beat Him about with the fists; and (they were) saying to Him, ‘Prophesy! Prophesy to us, Messiah! Who it is having struck You!’56
[And as the cock crowed twice, realizing that dawn was breaking] immediately, having made a Council of chief priests, and the elders and the scribes and of the whole Sanhedrin, having bound Jesus, they led Him away to Pontius Pilate, the Governor."57
[From the High Priest Caiaphas to the Judgment Hall]
"Then they lead Jesus from Caiaphas (the High Priest) into the Praetorium.58
And the first light was lighting upon the [eastern] skies,59
but the (Council) did not enter the Praetorium themselves [lest contrariwise they be defiled], so that they might eat the Passover."60
[Outside the Judgment Hall]
"Therefore Pilate went out unto them, and said,
‘What accusation bring you against this Man?’
They answered and said unto him,
‘Unless this One was not an immoral and perniciously evil influence
upon the Community, then not to you (would) we have delivered Him.’
Then Pilate said to them,
‘You take Him, and judge Him according to the Law of You.’
Then the (leaders of the Council of the) Jews said to him,
‘It is not lawful (for us) to put any one to death.’
so that might be fulfilled the word of Jesus, which He said, signifying by what kind of death (by which) He was about to die."61
[Inside the Judgment Hall]"Then Pilate went into the Praetorium again, and called Jesus, and said to Him,
‘Are You the King of the Jews?’
‘From yourself you say this, or others told you about Me?’
‘A Jew, I am not. This nation and kingdom of Yours -- and
the First Priests -- delivered You up to me. What did You do?’62
‘Are You the King of the Jews?’
‘You are speaking my mind and feelings on the matter.’63
Pilate asked, ‘What did You do?’
‘My Kingdom is not of this world. If of this world, was My
Kingdom, My servants would have fought, so that I should
not be delivered up to the [leaders of the] Jews. But (for)
now, My Kingdom is not from here.’
Then Pilate said to Him [skeptically],
‘Really, not a King are You?’
‘You say that King, I am. I, for this, have been born; and for
this, I have come into the world, that I may witness to the True
Reality: every one being of the True Reality hears of Me, the
[Commentary: Jesus explains that Kingship is His birthright, in a manner and behavior that only kings and royal-born should explain it. :End of Commentary.]
Pilate says to Him, ‘What is True Reality?’"64
[Outside the Judgment Hall]"And having said this, again Pilate went out to the [Council of the] Jews, and tells them,
‘I, not one crime, find in Him.’65
But they insisted, saying,
‘He stirs up the people, teaching throughout all Judea,
beginning from Galilee to here.’
And Pilate, hearing Galilee, asked if the man is a Galilean. And having known that He is from Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent Him up alongside with Herod, who -- in these days -- also being in Jerusalem."
[At Herod’s Royal Quarters in Jerusalem]"And Herod, seeing Jesus, rejoiced greatly; for through hearing of so many things about Him, he was wishing of a long (time) to see Him. And Herod hoped to see some miracle brought about by Jesus. And using many words, questioned Him. But Jesus answered him nothing. And being humiliated, the First Priests and the scribes stood up and went on a tirade, vehemently accusing Him.
Therefore, Herod and his soldiers, mocking Him, put luxurious clothing around Him, and sent Him back to Pilate."66
[Return to Pilate’s Palace Grounds/Praetorium]"Pilate, then, calling the first priests and the leaders and the people together, said up to and alongside with them,
‘You brought to me this man, as having perverted the people.
Look and see! I, before the eyes of your faces, examining
both accurately and carefully, found nothing in the Man
neither cause or reasonable justification to speak openly
and down against Him. No less did Herod, for I sent you
up alongside with him, and behold, nothing as weighty as
death is to be done to Him. Having instructed, educated, and
chastised, then, I will need to release Him.’67
And the First Priests and the elders hurriedly accused (Jesus) of many things,
‘This One we found through turning and twisting out of place
the people of this ethnicity, and dwarfing and reducing the
Tributes to be given to Caesar, saying Himself (that He is)
Christ, an existing king.’68
but (Jesus) answered nothing."69
[Commentary: When Jesus was approached by the Pharisees with the Herodians in Matthew 22:15-22, the Herodians sought to trick Jesus by a coin of Caesar. Had Jesus opposed the coins of Caesar, he would also have opposed the coins of Herod (some of which made Messianic claims through symbolism). The Herodians were Essenes who worked hand in hand with Herod’s secret police to root out and crush seditions, real or imagined. Therefore, to answer nothing while being interrogated, or simply questioned, was a common practice. : End of Commentary.]
"Pilate therefore speaks his mind and feelings to Him, and says,
‘Do You answer nothing? Don’t You hear what they are
witnessing against You?’
And He answered him not, not even up to and alongside with even a single word - so as to (cause) the governor Pilate, to greatly marvel.70
Then, (as) he (was) sitting upon the exalted Tribunal Seat, his wife sent (word) up alongside with him, saying,
‘Not even once to you, and to that Righteous One many things,
for I suffered today, down in a dream through Him.’"71
[Gabbatha]"Then Pilate took Jesus, and had Him violently whipped [in the Judgment Hall].72
And the soldiers, having twisted into form -- a crown out of thorns, -- and placed it on Head (pressing down and ensuring its setting);73
and (accompanied this by) throwing around Him a seamless garment of purple (also); and laid upon Him words [so that their breath did breathe out upon His face],74
proclaiming, 'Hail! the King -- of the Jews!!!'
And they [the 400-600 Romans, took turns, as they] smote Him, giving Him blows with the open palm."
[Commentary: Cyprian, in his Defense against the Heresy of Noetus, .18, informs us that Christ was only able to see out one eye while upon the Cross, saying, “…the rulers are ashamed when they see the Director of the Universe upon the Cross closing His eye and giving up the ghost.”
We therefore should keep in mind the violent swelling to the left side of Messiah’s face as a direct result of the Roman open palm strikes to His face, allowing Him only thereafter to see out of His right eye until His death. We should also keep in mind, that Jesus appears to have purposely withheld His miraculous and curative powers during His own Passion. Thus, stripping Himself of even the basest of Heavenly privileges, and in all ways like us. : End of Commentary.]
"Then Pilate went outside (the Judgment Hall) once again, and said to the accusers.
'Behold! (Look and see!). I bring Him out to you,
so that you may know that the end of the matter is (this),
that in Him, I find not (even) one crime!'
Then Jesus came outside, wearing: the thorny wreath, and the seamless garment of purple.
And (Pilate) says to (the First Priests and their officers),
'Behold! The man!'
Then, when the First Priests and their officers saw Him, they cried out, saying, 'Crucifixion!…Crucifixion!!'
Pilate says to them,
'You take Him (away) and crucify (Him);
but as for me, I do not find in Him any crime!'
Then the (leaders of the) Jews answered him, (saying),
'We have a Law of Custom! And according to (this),
the Law of our Custom, He ought to die! Because,
He has brought Himself forth, as the Son of GOD!!'
When Pilate heard this, he was greatly shaken (by the news), and briefly terrified!
[And removing himself with Jesus and the guard-escort], they re-enter the Praetorium [into the Judgment Hall] again. And he says to Jesus,
'From where -- are You (from)?'
But Jesus did not give him an answer. Then Pilate says to Him,
'To me -- You do not speak? --.
Do You not know the authority, that I have,
is that same authority to crucify You;
(and) is also the same authority,
by which I can deliver You, from being crucified?'
Then Jesus answered,
'You would not have Authority -- not against Me --
if it was not being given to you from above.
Therefore: he, delivering Me to you, has the greater sin.'
Out of this (declaration), Pilate searched vigorously (for a technicality by which) to release Him."
[Commentary: He debated with his legal advisers over points of Roman Law on the matter. :End of Commentary.]
"Meanwhile, [as Pilate delayed,] in the Court of Gabbatha, the leaders of the Jews cried out with such words as,
'If you release this One, you are definitely no friend of Caesar!' (and)
'All who produce forth themselves as a king, do so (by) speaking
As Pilate still heard these sayings ringing in his ears, (he) retrieved Jesus, and personally led Him out. And Pilate sat down upon the exalted platform's Judgment Seat before the crowd, this Place and its Court being called 'The Pavement', but in the Hebrew tongue, it is called: 'Gabbatha'.
And at about the 6th hour of the Passover Preparation, (Pilate) says to the (leaders of the) Jews, 'Behold, The King of you!'
But they cried out,
'Lift Him up!'
'Raise Him up!'
Pilate says to them,
'The King of you, I shall crucify?'
Then the First Priests answered alone,
'We have no King…but Caesar!'
Then, [as a result of these words], he certainly gave Him over to them to this end -- in order that He might be crucified."
[Commentary: Because, He had declared Himself to be their King, and they rejected His right to the Throne over them. :End of Commentary.]
[Out of the City to Golgotha]"Then they [the first priests] took and received Jesus near to themselves,
and taking the lead, led Him away;"
[Commentary: That is, the first priests personally led Jesus captive out of the city, ahead of the Roman guards; as if they were in a parade. :End of Commentary.]
"and bearing up and supporting the Cross at the foot of Him,
He came out and went forth75
into that which is related to and uttered in the Hebrew tongue as GOLGOTHA: in which place they did crucify Him; and with Him, two others (beside), on this side and on that side, and then Jesus -- in the center of their midst.
Then Pilate also wrote a Title, and lay and placed it upon the Cross: it was then, having been written - ‘JESUS the Nazarene, the King of the Judeans.’
Now certainly did this title the many of the Judeans read;"
[Commentary: possibly as they walked past, filing by, and gazing upon Him]
"because the place where Jesus was crucified was so near and close to the City,"
[Commentary: the valleys of Kidron and Hinom served as conduits for the millions to move through and around the city for religious purposes of approaching the Temple.76
The people were not static, but with the sounding of the trumpets and the use of banners, they moved in an orderly fashion. :End of Commentary.]
The people were not static, but with the sounding of the trumpets and the use of banners, they moved in an orderly fashion. :End of Commentary.]
and it was having been written in Hebrew, Greek, Latin.”77
1 Matthew 26:30, Mark 14:26
2 Luke 22:39
3 Matthew 26:30, Mark 14:26
4 John 18:1
5 Mark 14:27. For the sake of fluidity, other sayings/discussions, which follow Mark 14:27 - are left off.
6 Matthew 26:36, Mark 14:32
7 Luke 22:40
8 John 18:1
9 John 18:2
10 Matthew 26:36
11 Luke 22:40
12 Mark 14:23, Matthew 26:37
13 Luke 22:41
14 Matthew 26:37-38, Mark 14:33-34
15 Matthew 26:39, Mark 14:35
16 Luke 22:41, Mark 14:35
17 Matthew 24:39, Mark 14:35
18 Mark 14:35
19 Matthew 26:39
20 Luke 22:41
21 Matthew 26:40, Mark 14:37
22 Mark 14:38, Matthew 26:41
23 Mark 14:39
24 Matthew 26:43, Mark 14:40
25 Mark 14:40
26 Matthew 26:44
27 Luke 22:43
28 Luke 22:44
29 Luke 22:44
30 Luke 22:45
31 Mark 14:41
32 Luke 22:45
33 Luke 22:46
34 Matthew 26:45, Mark 14:41
35 Mark 14:41
36 Matthew 26:45
37 Mark 14:41
38 Luke 22:46
39 Mark 14:41
40 Mark 14:42, Matthew 26:46
41 The Greek word “speira” is used in relating a group of 400-600 Romans, or a half-force who are off-watch duty, but under the authority of the Chiliarchos. The shift is generally a maximum of 1/3 the force, each 1/3 working twice a day in 4 hour shifts: First Watch (6 am/pm -10 am/pm), Second Watch (10 am/pm -2 am/pm), Third Watch (2 am/pm - 6 am/pm). The Roman Legionnaires were divided into these sub-divisions:
a) 8-10 soldiers per decurion (like a corporal and his squad),
b) 8-10 decurions per centurion (that is, 8-10 decurions, each having their squads of 7-9 more, totaling 80-100 men per centurion);
c) 8-10 centurions (and their forces) per tribune or Chiliarchos (being 640-1010 men per Chiliarchos);
d) and 6 - 10 Chiliarchos to the general or superior commander of the Legion. (cf. Josephus, Wars of the Jews, 5.12.2. and 6.2.5.).
This totals a Roman Legion to no less than a force of 3,846 to a full strength of 10,110. The average Legion of the First Century A.D. is generally reckoned as being about 6,066 men under their general. This count does not include the carpenters, artisans, slaves, and logistical support; which adds 25% - 33% against the base number of troops (cf. Josephus, Wars of the Jews, 3.5.).
The counter commander of the Roman Chiliarchos (Commander of the 1,000) is the Temple “strategos”. During the High Festivals, in which over 3,000,000 come up and crowd Jerusalem -- which time this is. Josephus informs us in Wars of the Jews 6.9.3., that at least 2,700,000 of that number could legally partake the Passover -- those men with venereal diseases, and those women in their discharges, could not. The Temple would be teeming with armed Levites the size of a Roman Legion during the High Festivals. More than likely, at night, and only upon the high festivals, there was a minimum presence of well over 1,000 armed Levites upon the Temple Mount: half being asleep, the other half mostly dispersed through the streets and alleys of the Upper City, and at the entry ways to the Temple itself. Whereas, at other times of the year, the armed Levitical presence probably did not exceed 50, half that number being the entire defending force from the Court of the Gentiles on in.
This conscription was true only for about 20 years, in the construction era from circa 25 A.D. to ca. 44 A.D. This began with “the Samaritan defilement”, in which certain members sneaked in and dumped corpses upon Temple grounds by night. The conscription number on the High Holy Days apparently ceased with the death of Herod’s genealogical line in A.D. 44 - 45. That act of defilement in ca. A.D. 25 remained fresh in the minds of Israelis during the circa 1290 Days of Christ’s ministry (ca. September 9, 27 A.D. to March 23, 30 A.D.); and antagonized most all sons of Jacob to hate the Samaritans, ever after banning them from setting foot on Temple grounds in Jerusalem ever again.
The Temple Commanders presided over troops, and the disconcerted and numerous crowd was actually comprised of a core group of robbers who were stirring up the common folk in and about Jerusalem. The Nasi (princes of the Sanhedrin), who were also the Beth Din (the judges of the House or “Temple”), allied with these murderous “robber bands”, with whom there was a clear association in later years, when the Gospels were compiled (the early- mid 50s A.D.). The High Priest was called the Av Beth Din (the head judge). As the name, “Av” or “Ab” implies, the high priest was thought after the manner of a “father”, or in the comparative sense, a godfather. The comparison is appropriate, as this alliance between the robber bands and select members of the Sanhedrin began much like the OSS-CIA alliance of the United States Government with its domestic Mafia Underworld in the 1940s and 1950s. The literal cloak and dagger First Century Association between the Sicarii Terrorists and the Sanhedrin that most likely developed ca. 25 A.D., and became open by and transparent by the 50s A.D., is clearly spelled out (as it were) for us by Josephus (cf. Antiquities of the Jews, 20.8 -.3, .5-6, .8, .10).
42 Suborning Officers in the Greek of John 18:3 is “huperetas”: the “Captains of the 100s and the sergeants or lieutenants of the 50s”, if you will. The Jews mimicked the Legion structure, but had the equivalent of first sergeants running groups of 50, and master sergeants or lieutenants running the 100. This use of 5’s was seen as a perfect geometrical number by the Greeks, who found that the square root of 5:1 was a divine agent of their deities to man. Its most famous Greek application is the design of the Parthenon of Athens, Greece; designed to a 360 degree compass divided into 12. The Legion derived its structure from that compass to become 6,000 with 500 men in each of the 15 degrees of influence. The Levitical armed presence was thereby altered, probably with Herod I, from a guard army of 5,000 to a guard army of 6,000 following this principle. After the Temple construction was fully completed, this force appears to have been dramatically reduced by Roman will -- so as to appear to be a token force of perhaps one “speira” of 400 - 600 Levites during the Festivals from ca. A.D. 49 to 66.
43 John 18:3
44 Matthew 26:47, Mark 14:43, Luke 22:47. Cf., Supra 42.
45 John 18:4-6 Jesus boldly declares the Name of YHVeH of Exodus 3:14 to those children of Israel who do not know Him. The Greek can be taken in one of two ways: Jesus’ words “Ego Eimi” either cut the leaders to the heart so sharply, that in fear they retreated and fell back to the rear of the crowd, every one falling down to the ground…and into the mud…. Or, there was a miracle of angelic intercession which occurred in which the impertinent are cast back over the heads of the crowd. In either case, the leading accusers of Christ in this mob, end up as covered almost entirely in mud; and must return in that state before their leaders and peers.
In the second option of interpretation cited above, Jesus was taking the NAME unto Himself so forcefully, it is likened to being in the middle of 700 decibel thunderclap. This utterance is so powerful, that the very air and earth shakes, and it’s effect is likened to having the accusers in the front being blown upwards into the rear of the crowd as if by an explosion: being lifted up (uphill, and out of the Garden), and then “falling” (Gk. ‘epeson’) upon the earth, in an age that knew little of explosions. The reaction would be a temporary dumbfounding and numb to the reality of what’s happening around them. I am of a mind to accept this interpretation, even though some might call it “reaching”. I leave it up to the reader to accept or reject this theory as nothing more than a theory, and it being either valid or it being not credible. This miraculous casting away uphill will be duplicated later on the great stone that will cover the tomb of Joseph of Arimathea. Matthew 28:2 reveals that an Angel of the LORD casts away that stone. Therefore, just as easily, these haters of Christ were cast away by the unseen Angel who strengthened Christ in Luke 22:43.]
46 John 18:7
47 John 18:12-14 Also note, that if Annas was turning 61 during the last year of his tenure, he was required to step aside, as priestly service was supposed to end at age 60 for a “High Priest”, and start no earlier than age 40. This age range, of 40-60, is supposed as the prime or peak time of a man’s life mentally and spiritually -- while 20-40 is supposed to be the peak of a man’s physical life.
48 John 18:19-24, Luke 22:63-64
49 Mark 14:53
50 Mark 14:54,66; Matthew 26:58; John 18:18.
51 Mark 14:55-59
52 Mark 14:60, Matthew 26:62
53 Matthew 26:63, Mark 14:61
54 Mark 14::62, Matthew 26:64, Luke 22:69
55 Mark 14:63-64, Matthew 26:65-66, Luke 22:71
56 Mark 14:65, Matthew 26:67-68
57 Matthew 27:1-2, Mark 15:1, Luke 23:1
58 John 18:28
59 Matthew 27:1, Mark 15:1
60 John 18:28
61 John 18:29-32
62 John 18:33-35
63 Matthew 27:11-12
64 John 18:34-38
65 John 18:38, Luke 23:4
66 Luke 23:5-12
67 Luke 23:13-16
68 Luke 23:2 Out of sequence, but this most probably retains the true essence of accusations laid against Him, based on how the Greek reads. If Jesus indeed calls Himself Christ, as the accusation implies, then the First Priests would have claimed to have recently heard it. This utterance was manifest at the trial of “Caiaphas”, to which name is called a “donkey (or jack-ass)” after the Greek “Kantheros”, and “monkey” after the Hebrew Aramaic association. In either case, even the Pharisees may have had little respect for this very rich Galilean Sadducee who bought his way into the High Priesthood, past his own father-in-law.
69 Mark 15:3, Matthew 26:12
70 Mark 15:4-5, Matthew 26:13-14
71 Matthew 27:19
72 The Greek word regarding the whip is εμαστιγωσε (emastigose): mastigoo found in the aorist indicative active. This word comes from μάστιξ (mastix), which is often found as either “a whip” or “the flogging of a whip”. Mastix may also be used as a disease or plague that is laid upon a people as though it were a whip of wood - leather - and iron (or such components). The action of the aorist indicative active tells us that the flogging is not continuous. It does, however, entail the placing of those emotional and psychological trials and torments upon the person during the time of the scourging.
In Isaiah 53:5, when He is “wounded for our transgressions”, the Hebrew words for “wound” is that which can “pierce and bore” through. This Hebraic word “Chalal” is also used for “the flute”, a musical instrument. “Chalal” may also be used to describe a defilement of that which is, or those, which are, considered as “Holy unto the LORD”. In turn, that which is Holy (‘kodesh’) and that which is a Sanctuary (‘mikdash’), says Rabbi Shlomo Riskin, both derive from two words in Hebrew, “Moked Esh”: “the altar’s hearth of fire” (Leviticus 6:1) -- [Jerusalem Post, International Edition, April 25, 2003, p. 31 -- “Weekly Portion” by Rabbi Shlomo Riskin]. Therefore, Messiah, by being whipped, is offered up as a Scriptural variant of the burnt sacrifice, based on the allowances made in Scripture and connected firmly by the Hebrew.
In regards to the wounding after the “Chalal” of a flute: when Messiah spoke of this generation being like the children of the marketplace who complained after “piping” to someone that they did not dance, and mourning with someone who did not mourn also with them; there was also a darker side to this. The meaning had to do with those “children who mocked the afflicted, those being whipped”. Apparently, it was a form of entertainment, and they were disappointed when there were those who neither flinched under the whip, nor cried out.
Further, Isaiah 53:5 says that the “Chastisement of our peace was upon Him, and by His stripes we are healed.” The word chastisement here is the Hebrew word “Musar”, which comes from “Yasar”. Basically, the wounding with stripes -- the whipping of Messiah -- is prophesied as being brought about as a form of corrective action against Him. It is prophesied as being a punishment that is meant to bring about a right behavior. In the case of Christ, it appears prophecy says that this is Pilate’s true intent. In the literal sense, “Musar” deals with being bound (in this case by the hands) down to something, while the punishment is administered. Hence, the whipping post, and the necessity for Messiah to fulfill this prophecy in the exact manner that He did.
It must further be noted, that without the shedding of blood, there can be NO ATONEMENT of sin (Leviticus 17:11, Hebrews 9:22). In Egypt, the lambs blood was placed against the very doors of the dwelling-places of the Jews, that sin might “pass over” them (Exodus 12:7,13). Christ shed His blood as our Passover sacrifice, and covers us with His blood of atonement -- once and for all time; because as YHVeH is above and beyond the bounds and limitations of time, even though as a man does He suffer within the confines and parameters of Time.
73 και οι στρατιωται πλεξαντες στεφανον εξ ακανθων επεθηκαν αυτου τη κεψαλη
“And the soldiers having weaved (knitted, braided)”, hence ‘formed’, “a wreath out of thorns, put (it) on His head.”
The Greek word for “put (it) on” is epethekon. In this sense, it is to lay on (with affliction). (cf. Luke 10:30, and Acts 18:10). In Acts 18:10, it denotes those wanting to get a sure grip of, to “press down and to wound”. In Luke 10:30, the activity that “no man shall set on thee to hurt thee…” still communicates a word picture of pressing down to seriously wound or stab. This act -- in regards to the crown of thorns -- was to assure that Jesus died for all the maladies of thoughts, and even the mentally diseased. This is further assurance that all sins are paid for, both that committed by inaction and thought, as well as by action. Jesus Christ paid the total price of redemption for them all.
74 και ελεγου Lego has its origins in laying or lying down. When one gave an account, what he did was to lay down words before an audience, who judged as to whether or not his words were true, as if he had laid out a scroll with his words before them, to be examined. Thus, literally, the Romans lay upon Christ “words”. Their very breath touches His face, and rises up into His nostrils; probably almost nose to nose in closeness or proximity.
75 For the sake of “train of thought” consistency, I have excluded Simon the Cyrene’s participation here. Simon is the one who actually carried the Cross through the Siloam / Water Gate, and to Calvary for Messiah. Messiah probably was kicked and dragged through the running Kidron, while Simon and the thieves probably crossed by wooden bridge.
76 Aboth 5.5 tells us that every year, the festival was a miraculous event, with the average family pitched in tents; even tents pitched in the squares within the walls of Jerusalem. The more fortunate would stay in the home of a Jerusalemite, crammed for space. These that did, were obligated by custom to offer their hosts the skin of any animals they would offer for sacrifice in the Temple, as payment (Yoma 12a).
77 John 19:1-20, with word pictures and commentary, translation mine.